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Seasonal Affective Disorder

 
01/12/2017 | By Freedom Health Insurance
Most of us have seasons that we don’t particularly look forward to, with our mood sometimes going from energetic in the summer to sleeping and eating more in the winter. This is quite natural – but if the change in seasons has a bigger effect on your mood that leads to feelings of depression, you could be suffering from SAD, a mental health disorder.





What is SAD?

The NHS describes SAD as a type of depression that comes and goes in a seasonal pattern, it is recognised as a mental health disorder where the change in seasons has a considerable effect on your mood and energy levels, leading to depression symptoms that may impact your day-to-day life.

SAD Causes and Symptoms

The mental health charity, Mind, lists 4 theories about what causes SAD and why people experience a different level of severity in symptoms:
  • The effects of light – your sleep, appetite, temperature, sex drive, mood and activity are controlled by messages that are passed to parts of the brain when light hits the back of your eye. Those functions are likely to slow down and stop if there isn’t enough light. Some people need more light than others and are therefore more likely to develop SAD in low levels of light.
  • Disrupted body clockMayo Clinic says that the reduced level of sunlight during autumn and winter may disrupt your body’s internal clock, as your brain sets your body clock by the hours of daylight.
  • Low serotonin levels – serotonin is described by the NHS as a hormone that affects your mood, sleep and appetite. Insufficient sunlight may lead to reduced serotonin levels which is linked to feelings of depression.
  • High melatonin levels – the hormone melatonin makes you feel sleepy. According to the NHS, people with SAD may produce melatonin at higher levels than normal.

SAD Treatment and Support

  • Talking therapy – including counselling, psychotherapy or cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) can be very helpful for people with SAD and can help sufferers recognise and deal with other factors that may be contributing to their symptoms.
  • Light therapy – where a special light is used to simulate exposure to sunlight, although NICE is not clear on its effectiveness. There are different light therapy treatments for individual lifestyles and many different SAD lights available from various brands with different functions. Factors that affect which SAD light is right for you according to SAD.org.uk: the amount of free time you have during the average day for a light therapy treatment, how much money you have available to spend and the appropriate size for the space you have available in terms of portability.
  • Lifestyle measures – the NHS recommends trying to get as much natural sunlight as possible by: taking a walk at lunch time, making your home and work environments as light and airy as possible, sit near windows when you’re indoors, exercising regularly particularly outdoors in daylight, eating a healthy, balanced diet and if possible take steps to avoid and manage stress.
  • Antidepressants – these are drugs that work by increasing the activity of particular brain chemicals such as serotonin and noradrenaline which are thought to be involved in managing your moods. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are usually offered for SAD – MIND says they have been shown to be effective in treating severe SAD cases but are not recommended for mild or moderate cases; SSRIs can be combined with light therapy and taken seasonally.

The NHS says you should be aware of these 3 things if prescribed antidepressants: it can take 4-6 weeks for the medication to take effect, some may have side effects and may interact with other medication you’re taking, and you should take it as prescribed and continue taking it as advised by your doctor.

Feeling down in the winter or certain seasons is not always associated with SAD, but If you’re worried about your wellbeing, it is important to contact your GP and get a medical diagnosis and the help and support you need.